What causes parotitis? There are a few common causes, including infections of the Parotid glands and other illnesses.
Learn about Mumps, Sarcoidosis, and Influenza, and find out if you have any of these conditions.
If your symptoms are mild, seek medical treatment immediately. Parotitis can also be caused by cancer.
In rare cases, the condition is a complication of a severe condition, such as Sarcoidosis.
The parotid glands are part of the salivary system. While the disorder is relatively rare, it is associated with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, alcoholism, and bulimia.
Parotitis may also be caused by air entering the parotid ducts, which is known as pneumoparotitis.
Symptoms of parotitis depend on the cause, but may include pain, inflammation, and a bad taste.
Most common, acute suppurative parotitis is caused by bacteria. Bacteria and mixed anaerobes cause this condition.
In addition to the bacteria that cause the inflammation, dehydration and a combination of other factors may also play a role.
Acute bacterial suppurative parotitis is caused by Staphylococcus aureus and mixed oral aerobes.
Inflammation or blockage of the parotid duct can lead to inflammation of the gland and, therefore, to parotitis.
Vaccination programs have greatly reduced the incidence of this condition. In some cases, the parotid duct can become obstructed due to tumors.
Tumors may also block the salivary duct, but they are typically benign and are not harmful.
Symptoms of parotid duct obstruction may resemble other health problems.
Your healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and health history to confirm the diagnosis.
He or she will also examine the inside of the mouth and skin surrounding the gland.
You may even feel a stone during the examination. However, it is important to rule out other conditions and diseases before treating parotid duct obstruction.
Symptoms of bacterial parotitis include fever, sore throat, and inflammation of the glands.
The doctor may order a blood or saliva sample to determine whether bacterial or viral causes are involved.
If bacteria is the cause of parotitis, treatment will include antibiotics and a course of treatment.
Antibiotics must be taken for at least one to two weeks, but do not stop them too early as it can lead to a relapse of the infection.
Inflammation of the parotid duct may lead to inflammation and pain near the back of the jaw.
Pain, swelling, and fever may accompany the inflammation. In some cases, the blockage is intermittent, and symptoms may not be noticeable for days.
Long-term blockages may cause the parotid gland to stop producing saliva altogether.
However, despite the discomfort caused by parotitis, it is usually manageable with antibiotics.
Sarcoidosis can cause a variety of symptoms, including periarthritis and arthritis.
The most common symptoms of this disease include parotitis, arthralgia, and chronic myopathy.
Although the most common manifestation is arthritis, other connective tissue disorders may be present, too.
Patients with nodular erythema, periarachnoid cysts, or pulmonary involvement may also have sarcoidosis.
The cause of sarcoidosis is unknown, but it can be triggered by a number of different things, including dust, bacteria, and chemicals.
Once triggered, the immune system will begin to overreact, causing granulomas in various organs. These granulomas can affect organ function.
Unfortunately, there is no cure for sarcoidosis, and most patients do not need treatment.
The inflammatory process begins with antigen-presenting cells. The antigen-presenting cells trigger epithelioid differentiation and macrophage activation.
The inflammatory response is accompanied by the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
B-lymphocytes migrate to the focus of inflammation and T-cells undergo differentiation into T-helpers and regulatory T-cells.
In severe cases, granulomas can spread to the surrounding organs, causing a rash.
The most common clinical symptom of sarcoidosis is inflammation of the parotid glands.
Up to 6% of patients will experience parotid swelling. Sarcoidosis causes parotitis in both the lungs and the mouth.
Despite its seriousness, the occurrence of parotid inflammation is not as common as lymph nodes and the lungs.
In some instances, parotid involvement can lead to Heerfordt-Waldenstrom syndrome, which is characterized by fever, anterior uveitis, and enlargement of the parotid glands.
Besides a variety of bacterial infections, the inflammatory condition can cause parotitis in the mouth.
Infections and autoimmune diseases may also cause parotitis, as well.
A medical professional should determine the underlying cause of the problem. In rare cases, medications may be prescribed to alleviate the symptoms. If you suspect you have sarcoidosis, your doctor may prescribe antivirals.
The etiology of sarcoidosis is unknown, but the disease is largely linked to autoimmunity.
Genetic predisposition may be a risk factor, but infections and inorganic materials can also trigger the disease.
There is no clear cause of sarcoidosis, but scientists have formulated a set of criteria to help determine whether it is caused by an infection.
Mumps cause parotitis, a painful inflammation of the salivary glands. These glands swell rapidly over a few days and can be painful to swallow, talk, chew, or drink acidic juices.
People with mumps are most contagious when they have fever, swelling, and parotid glands.
However, people may experience these symptoms at different times, so they are susceptible to the disease.
In addition, people can pass on the virus to others by touching unclean objects such as hands and clothes.
The disease is caused by the Rubulavirus, a member of the family Paramyxoviridae.
Vaccination is available to protect against mumps. Children two to nine years of age are the most common targets for the disease.
Symptoms of mumps include fever, fatigue, myalgia, and anorexia, which are followed by pain and swelling of the parotid glands.
The most common symptom of mumps is parotid swelling, which may be unilateral or bilateral.
The swollen parotid lifts the earlobe in characteristic fashion. Other involved glands include the submandibular and sublingual glands.
In young children, mumps symptoms may present as lower respiratory tract infections. In adults, the condition can manifest as earache.
While mumps is most commonly the cause of parotitis, other causes can be found in children.
During the course of mumps, salivary glands can be affected by flu, coxsackievirus, and bacterial infections.
Another possible cause is salivary stone blockage. Aside from mumps, bacterial infections, flu, and viral infection can lead to parotitis.
There are two rare but potentially dangerous complications of mumps. In rare cases, the virus can cause meningitis, which is an inflammation of the central nervous system.
It may also cause pancreatitis, which causes inflammation of the pancreas. However, these are extremely rare and occur in less than one in every 10,000 people.
In addition to parotitis, mumps can lead to other complications, such as heart problems, hearing loss, and even encephalitis.
The virus spreads by saliva and respiratory droplets. Symptoms are most apparent two to five days before the virus is transmitted.
The infectious period is two days prior to the onset of parotitis. The virus can survive in urine and semen up to 14 days after the onset of the disease.
In addition to spreading saliva, the virus is easily transmitted by mouth to mouth. In addition, one-third of mumps cases remain contagious after the first onset of parotitis.
An unusual number of cases of influenza-associated parotitis have been reported in the U.S. in 2014-15, according to a CDC overview of the flu season.
A multistate cluster of cases of non-mumps parotitis was linked to a recently mutated H3N2 virus.
While mumps is the classic cause of parotitis, other viruses, autoimmune diseases, and bacterial infections are also responsible for parotitis.
In the upcoming season, CDC researchers will investigate the characteristics of influenza-related parotitis.
Researchers recently looked at the possible etiology of parotitis unrelated to mumps during the 2014-2015 US influenza season.
In the study, 320 patients were reported from 27 states, and 65% were men. Approximately two-thirds were younger than 20.
CDC researchers tested samples from these patients for several viruses, including influenza A (H3N2) and human parainfluenza virus.
In the study, CDC researchers found influenza viruses in 53% of the patients who provided adequate samples for testing.
The most common virus detected was the H3N2 type of influenza. HHV6B and EBV were also detected in significant numbers.
For further analysis, CDC researchers interviewed 50 patients with lab-confirmed influenza and compared their data to those of 124 healthy volunteers. Incidence rates for influenza-associated parotitis were higher among men than in women.
Acute parotitis is a sudden onset of swelling and local pain and tenderness, as well as high fever and chills.
It is often a unilateral infection and is most commonly seen in neonates. The presence of purulence from the gland and a Gram stain confirms the diagnosis.
A parotid needle aspiration can be helpful in diagnosing acute suppurative parotitis.
In severe cases, respiratory obstruction and septicemia may occur, along with massive neck swelling.
Acute parotitis is often associated with other illnesses, such as the flu or mumps.
In addition to influenza, bacterial infections can cause an inflamed parotid gland. Other diseases such as HIV and certain medications can also cause parotitis.
While there is no cure for parotitis, it can be treated. The best treatment is the quick removal of the inspissated protein from the parotid gland.